Promoted by election
Election Results from Company F of the 15th Texas Dismounted Cavalry Regiment, 3/9/1864. National Archives Identifier: 3854693
War Department Collection of Confederate Records
Electing junior officers such as lieutenants and captains to higher ranks was common among state troops of both the North and South. This report from Confederate 1st Lt. W. L. Harris of the 15th Texas Dismounted Cavalry certified the results of an election held on March 9, 1864, to fill two vacancies in Company F. The men elected Sgt. William A, Brady and Pvt. Joseph B. Lyas to be lieutenants.
"Serg’t. Stephen A. Swails particularly distinguished himself for coolness and bravery; he is a man in every way competent to do credit in a higher position, and I with pleasure recommend him for a Second Lieutenancy in this Regt."
Letter from Colonel Edward Hallowell to the Governor of Massachusetts, 2/24/1864
Regimental and Company Books of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment (Colored) Regiment, 05/13/1863 - 09/01/1865. Records of the Adjutant General’s Office
Recognizing the abilities of Sgt. Stephen A. Swails, Col. E. N. Hallowell recommends that Swails be promoted to second lieutenant and Massachusetts Governor John A. Andrew commissioned Swails on March 11, 1864. However, the War Department would deny this request because Swails is “of African descent.” Swails would eventually be granted his promotion in 1865 and his seniority adjusted to May 14, 1864—the day he was assigned duty as a second lieutenant.
The Emancipation Proclamation will be on display for just three days this month: February 15, 16, and 17 as part of the National Archives’ celebration of Black History Month.
Due to its fragile condition, it can only be displayed for a limited time each year. The document will be on display in the new David M. Rubenstein Gallery in the National Archives Building in Washington, DC.
By the President of the United States of America:
Whereas, on the twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following, to wit:
"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
Abraham Lincoln, congressman, patent holder, and sixteenth President of the United States was born 205 years ago on February 12, 1809.
All images from the series: Mathew Brady Photographs of Civil War-Era Personalities and Scenes.
"TO THE WOMEN OF THE REPUBLIC:
We ask you to sign and circulate this petition for the entire abolition of Slavery. We have now one hundred thousand signatures, but we want a million before Congress adjourns. Remember the President’s Proclamation reaches only the Slaves of Rebels. The jails of LOYAL Kentucky are to-day “crammed” with Georgia, Mississippi and Alabama slaves, advertised to be sold for their jail fees “according to LAW,” precisely as before the war!!! While slavery exists anywhere there can be freedom nowhere.”
"To the Women of the Republic," Address from the Women’s Loyal National League supporting the abolition of slavery, 01/25/1864
From the Records of the U.S. Senate
Although the Emancipation Proclamation had been issued one year earlier, it applied only to slaves in rebel states. Slaves held in states still in the Union were unaffected. Slavery would not be completely abolished until ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment on December 6, 1865.
(Note: A full transcription of this document is available at Wikisource.)
“I have been in the enemies lines…”
Statement of Hendricks B., Scout. 01/12/1864
By 1864 the ranks of the Confederate Army were thinning as a result of disease and combat. This report from a Union scout highlights another drain on Confederate manpower. More men were refusing conscription and deserting, forcing Confederate home guards and other authorities to spend valuable time and resources hunting them down.
Resolution from the House of Representatives to President of the United States, 01/10/1866
From the series: Papers Relating to Jefferson Davis, 1838 - 1869. From the General Records of the Department of Justice.
In this letter, the House asks the President to communicate the reason for why Jefferson Davis has not been tried for treason against the government.
Store for Freedmen
Union troops successfully occupied the area around Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1862. Even though the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, or Freedman’s Bureau, was not created until March 3, 1865, Union victories along the coast offered newly freed slaves support from the Federal Government. This photograph, taken by Sam A. Cooley on December 18, 1864, shows a store for freedmen in Beaufort.
Photograph of Store for Freedmen in Beaufort, South Carolina, 12/13/1864
Lincoln at Gettysburg
150 years ago on November 19, 1863, four months after the battle, President Abraham Lincoln came to Gettysburg to dedicate the national cemetery for the Union dead. In his remarks, he paid tribute to the brave men who died there and insisted that their sacrifice would increase the will of the people to fulfill America’s promise. Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, a rhetorical masterpiece delivered in less than three minutes, defined the war as necessary for the survival of the nation and its ideals.
This rare photo from a glass plate negative by Matthew Brady is the first–and possibly only–photograph of Lincoln at Gettysburg.
Dial or dash?
Letter from Captain C. M. McLure to Captain L. B. Norton Praising the Signal Corps Telegraph, 11/12/1863
Union forces used two types of telegraphy: the dial (or Beardslee) and the Morse. The dial telegraph could be set up quickly, giving it great flexibility. Operators needed to be literate but not as highly trained as Morse operators. Chief Signal Officer Albert Myer advocated the dial system; the Military Telegraph Service used the Morse system.
In his letter, Capt. C. M. McClure praised the capabilities of the Beardslee system, which had been successfully employed at Fredericksburg. By the end of 1863, however, the Signal Corps moved towards the Morse system with its relatively stronger signal strength. When Secretary of War Stanton removed Myer as chief signal officer in November 1863, the military primacy of the Morse telegraph was complete.
The Battle of Chickamauga - September 19 - 20, 1863
Confederate General Braxton Bragg’s Army of the Tennessee defeated forces from the Union’s Army of the Cumberland under Major General William Rosecrans in the Battle of Chickamauga in Georgia on September 19-20, 1863. However, Rosecrans’ forces were able to slip away to Chattanooga, and later relieved by forces under Ulysses S. Grant.
Map of the Battlefield of Chickamauga, A. Hager Draft., 04/22/1864. From the series: Civil Works Map File, 1800 - 1947
Photos of the Chickamauga Battlefield from the Mathew Brady Photographs series
"To the People of the Trans-Miss. Department"
The Confederacy depended on enslaved people to build fortifications, cook, drive supply wagons, work in hospitals, and produce munitions. Slave labor also planted and harvested many Southern crops, especially when white males were away fighting. The Union’s decision to emancipate, enlist, and arm black men was an enormous threat to Southern independence. This broadside urged owners to move their slaves away from the advancing Union Army and contribute their “servants” to the cause.
Broadside “To the People of the Trans-Miss. Department”, 09/15/1863. From the War Department Collection of Confederate Records
FREEDOM, Protection, Pay, and a Call to Military Duty!
After President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the U.S. Army began recruiting black men in earnest to fight for the Union Army. The Confederate government regarded captured black soldiers as fugitive slaves, not prisoners of war. It threatened to execute or sell them into slavery. This broadside reassured potential black recruits that the U.S. Government would treat all of its troops as soldiers and retaliate in the event of Confederate mistreatment of black U.S. soldiers, as detailed in Lincoln’s General Order 233, issued July 30, 1863:
"It is the duty of every government to give protection to its citizens, of whatever class, color, or condition, and especially to those who are duly organized as soldiers in the public service. The law of nations and the usages and customs of war, as carried on by civilized powers, permit no distinction as to color in the treatment of prisoners of war as public enemies. To sell or enslave any captured person on account of his color, is a relapse into barbarism and a crime against the civilization of the age.
The Government of the United States will give the same protection to all its soldiers, and if the enemy shall sell or enslave anyone because of his color, the offense shall be punished by retaliation upon the enemy’s prisoners in our possession. It is, therefore ordered, for every soldier of the United States killed in violation of the laws of war, a rebel soldier shall be executed, and for every one enslaved by the enemy or sold into slavery a rebel soldier shall be placed at hard labor on the public works and continued at such labor until the other shall be released and receive the treatment due to a prisoner of war.”