Police Report on Arrest of Rosa Parks
On December 1, 1955, during a typical evening rush hour in Montgomery, Alabama, a 42 year-old woman took a seat near the front of the bus on her way home from the Montgomery Fair department store where she worked as a seamstress. Refusing to yield her seat to a white passenger when instructed by the bus driver, police were called and she was arrested.
The police report shows that Rosa Parks was charged with “refusing to obey orders of bus driver.” According to the report, she was taken to the police station, where she was booked, fingerprinted, and briefly incarcerated.
The event touched off a 381-day boycott of the Montgomery, Alabama, bus system in which a 26-year-old unknown minister, Martin Luther King, Jr., emerged as the leader.
(more via DocsTeach)
As Fire Prevention Month comes to a close, here’s a catchy reminder from country star Eddy Arnold and the Forest Service about everyone’s favorite forest fire prevention advocate.
Ever wondered - is it Smokey Bear or Smokey the Bear?
Smokey’s official name has no “the” in the middle though. It was added in 1952 to achieve proper rhythm in the song “Smokey the Bear”, written by Steve Nelson and Jack Rollins.
Did you know? Just like his colleague Woodsy Owl, Smokey has a Public Law (P.L. 82-359) protecting him. Congress passed the law in 1952 to prevent Smokey from being used to sell commercial products. It was believed that this would dilute Smokey’s forest fire prevention message. Their strategy seems to have worked. Wildfire prevention is one of the most successful campaigns that the Ad Council has ever produced.
September 21 - MiG-15 from a North Korean Defector
HQ. FEAF, TOKYO —- Pictured here is the Russian-built MIG-15 fighter interceptor which was flown to a U.S. Air Force base at Kimpo near Seoul Monday September 21, by a North Korean officer pilot, in a daring flight to freedom. The flier was interviewed by world-wide press media representatives Tuesday, September 22. The MIG-15 is being studied by U.S. Air Force authorities. ca. 09/22/1953
60 years ago on September 21, 1953, North Korean pilot No Kum-Sok defected to South Korea with this MIG-15 aircraft. He later received a $100,000 reward for his actions under “Operation Moolah,” an initiative by the U.S. Air Force to obtain and study Soviet fighter technology.
POWs (recently repatriated in the UN POW exchange) pose for a group photograph with their flight nurses at Tachikawa Air Base, Japan. 09/05/1953. They are proudly displaying the American flag which was hand made by them during their long imprisonment at a Communist POW camp. Officer shown kneeling in front of the group is identified as Maj. David F. Macghee, 137 El Central St., Moorestown, N.J. Maj. Macghee, a B-29 pilot of the 371st Bomb Sqd., was captured on 10 November 1950 after his plane was shot down by flak and MIGs. His B-29 was the first B-29 to be shot down in the Korean conflict.
Chow on the Battlefield
"Private First Class Clarence Whitmore, voice radio operator, 24th Infantry Regiment, reads the latest news while enjoying chow during lull in battle, near Sangju, Korea., 08/09/1950"
Happy 55th Birthday NASA!
On July 29, 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 which “provided for research into the
problems of flight within and outside the earth’s atmosphere” and
established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
An Agreement Between the Commander-in-Chief United Nations Command and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People’s Army and the Commander of the Chinese People’s Volunteers Concerning a Military Armistice in Korea, 07/27/1953
The Korean War, which began on June 25, 1950, when the North Koreans invaded South Korea, officially ended with this armistice signed on July 27, 1953.
At 10 a.m., in Panmunjom, scarcely acknowledging each other, U.S. Army Lt. Gen. William K. Harrison, Jr., senior delegate, United Nations Command Delegation; North Korean Gen. Nam Il, senior delegate, Delegation of the Korean People’s Army and the Chinese People’s Volunteers, signed 18 official copies of the tri-language Korean Armistice Agreement.
It was the end of the longest negotiated armistice in history: 158 meetings spread over two years and 17 days. That evening at 10 p.m. the truce went into effect. The Korean Armistice Agreement is somewhat exceptional in that it is purely a military document—no nation is a signatory to the agreement. Specifically the Armistice Agreement:
- suspended open hostilities;
- withdrew all military forces and equipment from a 4,000-meter-wide zone, establishing the Demilitarized Zone as a buffer between the forces;
- prevented both sides from entering the air, ground, or sea areas under control of the other;
- arranged release and repatriation of prisoners of war and displaced persons; and
- established the Military Armistice Commission (MAC) and other agencies to discuss any violations and to ensure adherence to the truce terms.
The armistice, while it stopped hostilities, was not a permanent peace treaty between nations.
President Eisenhower, who was keenly aware of the 1.8 million American men and women who had served in Korea and the 36,576 Americans who had died there, played a key role in bringing about a cease-fire. In announcing the agreement to the American people in a television address shortly after the signing, he said, in part,
"Soldiers, sailors and airmen of sixteen different countries have stood as partners beside us throughout these long and bitter months. In this struggle we have seen the United Nations meet the challenge of aggression—not with pathetic words of protest, but with deeds of decisive purpose. And so at long last the carnage of war is to cease and the negotiation of the conference table is to begin… . [We hope that] all nations may come to see the wisdom of composing differences in this fashion before, rather than after, there is resort to brutal and futile battle.
Now as we strive to bring about that wisdom, there is, in this moment of sober satisfaction, one thought that must discipline our emotions and steady our resolution. It is this: We have won an armistice on a single battleground—not peace in the world. We may not now relax our guard nor cease our quest.”
President Eisenhower concluded his announcement by quoting from Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural address.
via Our Documents
As we wait for today’s major Supreme Court rulings, take a look at this letter to JFK from Frank Kameny, a US Army astronomer fired over his homosexuality in 1957. Kameny challenged the Supreme Court in 1961, making his the first civil rights case based on sexual orientation. He went on to co-found the Mattachine Society of Washington.
From the White House Central Office Files/JFK Library
Frenchman’s Flat, Nevada - Atomic Cannon Test - History’s first atomic artillery shell fired from the Army’s new 280-mm artillery gun. Hundreds of high ranking Armed Forces officers and members of Congress are present. The fireball ascending, 05/23/1953
(Ed. note - Although the caption provided with the photo states 5/23/1953, most records indicate this test occurred on May 25, 1953.)