Store for Freedmen
Union troops successfully occupied the area around Beaufort, South Carolina, in 1862. Even though the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, or Freedman’s Bureau, was not created until March 3, 1865, Union victories along the coast offered newly freed slaves support from the Federal Government. This photograph, taken by Sam A. Cooley on December 18, 1864, shows a store for freedmen in Beaufort.
Photograph of Store for Freedmen in Beaufort, South Carolina, 12/13/1864
"Reckon I been in mill 2 years. Don’t remember."
Springstein Mill. John Lewis (boy with hat), 12 years old, 1 year in mill. Weaver — 4 looms. 40 [cents] a day to start, 60 [cents] a day now. Brother and mother in mill. Morris Small (boy with cap), “Reckon I been in mill 2 years. Don’t remember.” Chester, S.C., 11/28/1908
Plan and Sections of Fort Wagner, 1863
An ill-fated assault was launched on the Confederate stronghold of Fort Wagner, South Carolina on July 18th, 1863. Leading the attack was the 54th Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, one of the first official African American units. The 54th lost two-thirds of their officers and half of their troops in the assault, memorably dramatized in the film Glory.
Liberia was formed as a haven for freed slaves. Beginning in the 1820s, thousands of freed slaves emigrated to Liberia. One of many ships, the Barque Azor carried 260 African American emigrants to Monrovia, Liberia, from Charleston, South Carolina, for resettlement on its maiden voyage.
The first engagement of the Civil War took place at Fort Sumter on April 12 and 13, 1861. After 34 hours of fighting, the Union surrendered the fort to the Confederates. Major Robert Anderson informed Secretary of War Simon Cameron of the surrender in this telegram, dated April 18.
via Our Documents »
“Seabrook Landing, near Port Royal, S. Carolina (Coaling Station)”, 02/11/1863
From the Series: Herbert Eugene Valentine’s Sketches of Civil War Scenes
On December 12, 1874, Representative Joseph Rainey (R-SC) took his seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, becoming the first African American congressman. Rep. Rainey served in Congress until March 3, 1879.
Credentials of Rep. Joseph H. Rainey, 11/23/1974, HR 44A-J1, Records of the U.S. House of Representatives
May 1973 - Lining Main Street for a View of the Memorial Day Parade in Beaufort, South Carolina
Photo taken by Paul Conklin, as part of the EPA’s Documerica Project