Congress in the Archives will feature monthly staff posts on our blog. Today’s post comes from Center archivist Kristen Wilhelm.
Forty years ago today self proclaimed “ol’ country lawyer” Senator Sam Ervin stepped onto center stage as chairman of the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, better known as the Watergate Committee. Senator Ervin became a household name as an estimated 85% of U.S. households viewed at least some of the hearings broadcast that summer.
Attorney General John Mitchell, shown in the photo, was one of the high-level Nixon administration figures whose testimony was broadcast. For the committee, bringing the hearings directly to the people was vital. As stated in its Final Report: “The full import of the hearings could only be achieved observing the witnesses and hearing their testimony.”
Photograph of Attorney General John Mitchell, 1973, Records of the U.S. Senate
Many of the documents are already online!
Today at noon, the National Archives released 950 pages of records sealed in U.S. v. Liddy, the Watergate break-in case. The sealed proceedings include evidentiary discussions held outside the jury’s hearing, pretrial discussions between defendants’ lawyers and the Court, and post-trial sentencing information.
The 36 folders of documents total approximately 950 pages. A folder title list is available here: http://go.usa.gov/gWG5
Image: Document from Exhibits B and C.
June 17 - Break-in at the Watergate
During the early hours of June 17, 1972, Frank Wills was the security guard on duty at the Watergate office complex in Washington, DC. This log shows that at 1:47 a.m. he called the police, who arrested five burglars inside the Democratic National Committee Headquarters. Investigation into the break-in exposed a trail of abuses that led to the highest levels of the Nixon administration and ultimately to the President himself.
In May 1975, the Watergate Special Prosecution Force (WSPF) decided that it was necessary to question former President Richard M. Nixon in connection with various investigations being conducted by that office.
The areas of inquiry that were agreed upon were:
- The circumstances surrounding the 18½ minute gap in the tape of a meeting between Mr. Nixon and H. R. Haldeman on June 20, 1972.
- Alleged receipt of large amounts of cash by Charles G. Rebozo or Rose Mary Woods on behalf of Mr. Nixon and financial transactions between Mr. Rebozo and Mr. Nixon.
- Attempts to prevent the disclosure of the existence of the National Security Council wiretap program through removal of the records from the FBI, the dealing with any threats to reveal the existence of such records, and the testimony of L. Patrick Gray at his confirmation hearings to be FBI Director.
- Any relationship between campaign contributions and the consideration of ambassadorships for Ruth Farkas, J. Fife Symington, Jr., Vincent DeRoulet, Cornelius V. Whitney, and Kingdon Gould, Jr.
- The obtaining and release of information by the White House concerning Lawrence O’Brien through use of the Internal Revenue Service.
Today at noon, The National Archives and the Nixon Presidential Library released transcripts of President Nixon’s grand jury testimony of June 23-24, 1975, and associated material. Take a look at them here.
Richard M. Nixon’s Resignation Letter, 08/09/1974
Following the revelations stemming from the investigation of the Watergate break-in, President Richard M. Nixon resigned the Presidency in this letter dated August 9, 1974. The President’s resignation letter is addressed to the Secretary of State, in keeping with a law passed by Congress in 1792. The letter became effective when Secretary of State Henry Kissinger initialed it at 11:35 a.m.
Government Exhibit Number 60: Uher 5000 Reel-to-Reel Tape Recorder
This tape recorder was operated by President Richard Nixon’s White House secretary Rosemary Wood as part of the Nixon White House taping system. Wood used this recorder to create the tape of June 20, 1970, containing the infamous “18 1/2 minute gap.”
Government Exhibit One: Photograph of the Watergate Complex
During the night of June 17, 1972, five burglars broke into the offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate office complex in Washington, DC. This photograph was used as an exhibit in the trial of Watergate burglar G. Gordon Liddy.
June 17 - Break-in at the Watergate
During the early hours of June 17, 1972, Frank Wills was the security guard on duty at the Watergate office complex in Washington, DC. This log shows that at 1:47 a.m. he called the police, who arrested five burglars inside the Democratic National Committee Headquarters. Investigation into the break-in exposed a trail of abuses that led to the highest levels of the Nixon administration and ultimately to the President himself. President Nixon resigned from office under threat of impeachment on August 9, 1974.