Jackie Robinson Court Martialed
This general court-martial order number 130, Headquarters XXIII Corps is from the official military personnel file of Jack “Jackie” R. Robinson. The order addresses his disrespect to an officer and disobeying the command of an officer.
General Court Martial Orders Number 130, Headquarters XXII Corps, 08/23/1944
Robinson* was ultimately acquitted of all charges.
*Edited 8/23/2012 to change the name Johnson to the correct, Robinson.
Banned from Flight
Jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald, an international singing sensation, faced discrimination when on tour. En route to a concert from Honolulu to Australia, Ella Fitzgerald was denied the right to board a Pan American flight, because she was African American. She filed this complaint against Pan American. Page 3 is shown.
Complaint from Ella Fitzgerald, John Lewis, Georgiana Henry, and Norman Granz v. Pan American World Airways, Inc., 12/23/1954
July 2 - The Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964, prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction.